Diets high in fat and cholesterol (especially from animal sources) have been linked to an increased risk of colon cancer. Low-fiber diets have also been associated with increased risk, but the research isn't as clear. This recommendation is independent of weight. Even if you can eat steak and liver at every meal and stay trim, you're still increasing your risk of developing colon cancer by virtue of what you're eating. A balanced diet seems to be the way to go.
Since diabetics have an increased risk of developing colon cancer, it's also a good idea to avoid food choices that are known to lead to diabetes. In general, these include high-glycemic foods like sugary snacks and refined carbohydrates, often referred to as "white" foods. Examples include white sugar, white rice, white bread, and white pasta. Less-processed versions like brown rice, whole-grain bread, and wheat pasta are healthy substitutes.
To learn more about eating a balanced diet, check out Exploring the USDA Food Pyramid, from About's Guide to Nutrition.
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